Matthews and Kin Park skating surfaces ready for the public

first_imgFORT ST. JOHN, B.C. – With the extreme changes in weather so far this winter season, skating surfaces in Fort St. John are in skateable conditions.The Matthews Park skating loop has been getting lots of use throughout January, as the City hasn’t received any complaints about the ice.“The ice remains in good shape,” said Director of Facilities and Grounds Robin Langille. “The surface has been seeing a lot of use over the last three weeks even with the weather.”- Advertisement -The Kin Park outdoor rink is in slightly worse shape and hasn’t seen as much use even though the surface has been in place for a few weeks.“The hockey rink at Kin Park is a work in progress,” added Langille. “The edges are still a little rough and the middle is okay at this point. We will need the weather to cooperate to flood and get the ice up to par. The perfect weather for making ice is the minus eight to ten range.”With the weather expected to plateau at around minus 10 starting next week, the ice surfaces should only get better during that time.Advertisementlast_img read more

Loonie Oil and Gasoline

first_imgThose predicting the Canadian dollar will reach parity with its U.S. counterpart this summer may have to revise their forecast, to the end of this week.At last word the loonie was continuing its surge and it opened this morning, at 98 point nine cents U.S.The key in all this is the U.S. Federal Reserve, which continues to hold U.S. interest rates at historic lows hoping to fuel the slow developing American economic recovery.Meantime, speaking of fuel, the price of crude oil is also on the rise again, and at last report was approaching 82 dollars and 50 cents U.S.That could reverse the Canadian gasoline price trend of the past week, as the latest 60 city cross-country survey by Calgary-based MJ Ervin and Associates, shows the national average fell one point two cents a liter to a dollar three point two.However, that is still higher than the common posted price for a regular liter in Fort St. John, which remains at a dollar one point two…and, among the six BC survey cities is second only to Prince George, at 99 point 9 cents a liter.BC-Gas-Prices-dot-com has the provincial average over a dollar and eight cents a litre, for the second consecutive week…nearly 15 cents higher than this time last year. – Advertisement –last_img read more

College roundup: Bruins get past the Waves

first_imgMEN’S VOLLEYBALL Long Beach St. 3, UCLA 2: Dean Bittner had a career-high 21 kills to lead the No. 14-ranked 49ers (7-8, 4-7 MPSF) to the come-from-behind victory over the No. 5 Bruins (10-8, 8-7) at The Walter Pyramid, 30-23, 24-30, 26-30, 30-23, 16-14. In a battle between the past two NCAA champions, the UCLA men’s tennis team rebounded after losing the doubles point and eventually stormed back to take a 6-1 victory over Pepperdine at the Los Angeles Tennis Center on Wednesday. In the only match featuring two ranked opponents on Wednesday, fifth-ranked Benjamin Kohlloeffel downed 15th-ranked Andre Begemann, 6-3, 6-3. It marked Kohlloeffel’s 11th straight win, pushing his record to 19-2 (11-0 in dual matches) for UCLA (9-2). Pepperdine 3, Johnson & Wales (Colo.) 0: J.D. Schleppenbach had 16 kills as the host Waves (14-1) won their 11th straight, 30-16, 30-22, 30-22. CSUN 3, UC Santa Barbara 1: Senior Dan Rhodes had a season-high 25 kills at the Matadors (9-9, 7-6 MPSF) defeated the Gauchos (12-6, 10-5) 23-30, 30-23, 30-27, 30-26 at The Matadome. center_img 160Want local news?Sign up for the Localist and stay informed Something went wrong. Please try again.subscribeCongratulations! You’re all set!last_img read more

Folau’s anti-gay stance won’t divide Wallabies – Pocock

first_img0Shares0000Devout Christian Israel Folau, one of Australia’s top players, has been embroiled in a storm since posting on social media in April that gay people were destined for hell © AFP/File / WILLIAM WESTSYDNEY, Australia, Jun 4 – Star flanker David Pocock says he “strongly disagrees” with teammate Israel Folau’s anti-gay views but insists it will not affect harmony within the Wallabies camp ahead of this week’s Test against Ireland.Devout Christian Folau, one of Australia’s top players, has been embroiled in a storm since posting on social media in April that gay people were destined for hell, sending rugby chiefs into damage control. Pocock, a strong advocate of marriage equality, said he fears anti-gay social media posts by professional athletes will reverse steps taken to make sports more inclusive.“Having Australia’s best rugby player using his platform like that has the potential to really harm young people who are going through some pretty rough stuff trying to come to terms with their sexuality,” he told the Sydney Morning Herald on Monday.“They’re (trying to do) that in a culture that clearly hasn’t become inclusive enough. The fact there are still no footballers in Australia who are openly ‘out’, that says plenty about current sports culture and our society.”But Pocock, who is making his Test comeback in Australia’s three-game series against Ireland after a year’s sabbatical, insisted his differing views with Folau would not divide the Wallabies.“Absolutely (we can play together), I’ve got family who have those views and we’ve had it out over the years,” he said.“The bottom line is they’re family. You talk about it in a civil way … and when you do that you realise we’ve got far more common ground than we have in difference of belief.“I just don’t see who wins if we aren’t able to relate to each other as humans and keep talking about things rather than having these really nasty polarising debates to decide who is and isn’t part of our tribe based on their beliefs.Folau said his bond with Pocock was as strong as ever after a recent conversation between the two.“Poey came up to me and we started an open conversation about our different beliefs,” Folau told reporters.“We’re both grown men and we talked about things. Like I said, it was nothing personal and we respect each other fully. There’s a whole lot of respect in our team and I like that.“It won’t change anything when we step out onto the field … I’ll be there to cover him and so will he (for me).“We’re 100 percent behind each other.”Australia play Ireland in Brisbane on June 9, Melbourne on June 16 and Sydney on June 23.0Shares0000(Visited 1 times, 1 visits today)last_img read more

CONFIRMED! Leeds land striker on four-year deal

first_img Chris Wood Leeds United have completed the signing of striker Chris Wood from Leicester for an undisclosed fee.The 23-year-old New Zealand international has penned a four-year deal to become the Whites’ fourth summer arrival.“I think he’s another important piece in the jigsaw,” head coach Uwe Rosler told the club’s official website. “We were looking for a number nine type – like Chris Wood is.“He’s physical, strong and experienced in this league. He has potential to develop and has his best years in front of him.“It’s exciting. He already has a proven goalscoring record and I think there are many goals to come. We think that he is the right player.”Wood scored 20 goals in 62 appearances for the Foxes after arriving at the club from West Brom in 2013.He spent the second half of last season on loan at Leeds’ Championship rivals Ipswich, and had also attracted interest from Wolves this summer. 1last_img read more

DONEGAL MAN GETS SIX YEARS FOR MANSLAUGHTER ON ARRANMORE

first_imgA Donegal man who pleaded guilty to the manslaughter of another man on Arranmore Island has been jailed for six years.Stephen Boyle, 41, of Cambridge Park, Kilburn, London, stabbed father-of-one Paul Boyle, 19 in the neck with a glass during a row.The victim was rushed to hospital in Letterkenny following the attack but died on October 3rd, 2009. Mr Justice Patrick McCarthy sentenced Boyle to six years in prison, backdating it to October 2009 for time already spent in custody.During the trial the court had heard that both men had worked together previously in London and there was a question over money which led to the row.Judge McCarthy said Boyle had a number of previous convictions of a minor nature but said he would disregard them in relation to sentencing.He also noted that Paul Boyle’s family went through a great deal of trauma and that his parents were particularly traumatised.The judge took account of a psychiatric report which said Boyle was of minimal risk of re-offending and that nine persons had given him the highest references.He also noted that a defence of diminished responsibility was used during the trial but that the jury did not accept it.Mr Vincent Heneghan BL prosecuting told the court on that date the prosecution did not accept that there was minimal risk of reoffending but that it accepted the decision of the jury.DONEGAL MAN GETS SIX YEARS FOR MANSLAUGHTER ON ARRANMORE was last modified: April 17th, 2012 by StephenShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window)last_img read more

Fed move stuns Asian markets

first_img AD Quality Auto 360p 720p 1080p Top articles1/5READ MORE11 theater productions to see in Southern California this week, Dec. 27-Jan. 2Tokyo’s Nikkei 225 average has tumbled 7.6 percent since May 8 – after surging 54 percent during the previous 12 months – and Hong Kong’s market is down 8.1 percent since the same date. The Russian market dropped 25 percent from early May through Thursday. Many analysts say the decline is a “correction” – market talk for healthy declines that bring stocks closer to their true values – and not the beginning of a meltdown. “I would say this is part of a global correction triggered by concerns about U.S. inflation and interest rates,” said Shane Oliver, the head of investment strategy at AMP Capital Services in Sydney, Australia. “But I don’t think it’s the start of a bear market.” Some markets had risen too far too fast, said Ben Kwong, chief operating officer of brokerage KGI Asia in Hong Kong. “They were extensively overbought. Any factor that’s going to make investors uneasy will trigger a sell-off,” Kwong said. “Greed and fear are contagious.” NEW DELHI – When the U.S. Federal Reserve raised interest rates two weeks ago – and suggested more hikes might come – stock investors in Asia and emerging markets who had enjoyed spectacular returns over the past year had little clue their ride was about to end. In the following days, metal prices plunged and worries grew about the U.S. dollar’s drop. The confluence of events scared some investors into dumping shares, which in turn made others anxious, prompting them to sell. The result: Stock markets from Japan to Russia tumbled, leaving investors worried if this was a crisis-in-the-making. India’s market has been hard hit. After nearly doubling since April 2005, its benchmark Sensex index has plunged 14.3 percent since reaching an all-time high on May 10 – the same day as the Fed’s move. Few doubt the economic potential of Asia’s dynamic economies, particularly India and China. Amid the turmoil, the Bank of China, the mainland’s second-biggest bank, raised $9.7 billion in an initial public offering in Hong Kong last week, the largest IPO in six years. Russia’s key market index bounced back nearly 5 percent on Friday, in part because steel stocks put in a strong showing, led by Russian giant Severstal whose shares jumped on news of a deal with the world’s No. 2 steel maker Arcelor SA. But while many Asian and emerging markets recovered Friday, analysts warn that the markets will remain volatile for at least awhile. Investors are still worried that the U.S. central bank may keep raising interest rates, slowing the U.S. economy and undermining demand for Asian exports. Continued weakness on Wall Street and in the U.S. dollar, which hurts exporters from emerging markets, are also weighing on sentiment. And prices of commodities such as copper and aluminum, which have fallen after soaring for two years on Chinese demand, remain unsteady. South Korea’s benchmark index, which soared 59 percent in the 12 months prior to May 11, has since tumbled 9.8 percent, while Singapore’s market has dropped 8 percent since May 8. The Bank of Mexico noted that volatility in emerging markets knocked nearly 10 percent off the Mexican stock market’s leading index before it rebounded on Thursday. “There are renewed fears about higher world inflation, and uncertainty has increased as to how the main central banks will react and the impact on economic activity,” Mexico’s central bank said. “The markets have reacted nervously to the information published day-to-day, and risk aversion has increased noticeably.” Another fear resurfaced this week: bird flu. Currency markets were jittery after a World Health Organization report said an Indonesian man died of bird flu after caring for his infected son, raising the possibility of human-to-human transmission of the disease. China’s market, however, has been immune to the regional volatility, largely because foreign investors are restricted from direct dealings in most shares traded on the mainland. The benchmark Shanghai Composite Index is up 37 percent this year. India’s market plunge was exacerbated by short-term investors who had borrowed money to buy stocks, but then were forced to dump them to meet margin calls. If securities bought with borrowed money fall below a certain point, brokerages require investors to either deposit more money or sell some assets to meet the shortfall. Indian Finance Minister P. Chidambaram said the central bank would ensure ample liquidity to help banks to help meet such margin requirements. Also, the stock exchanges agreed to cut margin requirements by almost half. “We must accept the fact that markets will rise and markets will fall in response to developments,” Chidambaram told parliament on Tuesday amid criticism from lawmakers that the government was doing little to shield small investors from the brunt of the stock plunge. He attributed the past year’s surge to the economy’s strong growth potential luring foreign investors who have bought close to $15 billion in Indian shares since last April. “The India growth story remains intact,” he argued. India still remains “one of best-performing emerging markets.” Even after the recent slide, India’s Sensex index is still up 15 percent from Jan. 1. Fidelity International, the world’s largest mutual fund company, said in a statement from its Bombay office that such market declines are “not unusual.” “While the Indian equity market may continue to be volatile in the short term, Fidelity remains positive on the long-term growth story,” it said. Meanwhile, many individual investors in India are hurting. Parikshit Soni, a retired government employee in Mumbai, formally known as Bombay, has seen the value of his portfolio drop by hundreds of thousands of rupees (tens of thousands of dollars) in recent days. “I worry about telling my wife about how much we’ve lost,” said Soni, who had planned a vacation with his now-disappeared profits. “I don’t think that’s possible now.”160Want local news?Sign up for the Localist and stay informed Something went wrong. Please try again.subscribeCongratulations! You’re all set!last_img read more

Dryden’s space efforts honored

first_imgEDWARDS AIR FORCE BASE – California space advocates will honor the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center for its 50th space shuttle landing and continued support of the nation’s space program. The California Space Authority will present Dryden with a SpotBeam award at a banquet on Dec. 2 in Los Angeles. The award recognizes the center for supporting the Aug. 9 landing of the space shuttle Discovery, the latest in a long line of space efforts by the center. “This was the nation’s ‘return-to-flight’,” said Janice Dunn, CSA’s deputy director. “It was a major accomplishment.” The Edwards Air Force Base landing capped a two-week mission that was the first shuttle flight since the loss of Columbia on Feb. 1, 2003. Discovery was to have landed in Florida, but poor weather prompted NASA to direct the shuttle to Edwards. This is the second year for CSA’s SpotBeam award. Last year, recipients included two from the Antelope Valley – the late state Sen. W.J. “Pete” Knight, R-Palmdale, for his advocacy of space and the military, and the SpaceShipOne team, which made the first private, manned space flights. The other SpotBeam recipients this year are Rep. Ken Calvert, R-Riverside; the California Council on Base Support and Retention; the late Assemblyman Mike Gordon, D-El Segundo; the Los Angeles Air Force Base Regional Alliance; the Chabot Space and Science Center; Lockheed Martin’s work force; the Jet Propulsion Laboratory; Trimble Navigation LTD.; and QuakeFinder LLC. Jim Skeen, (661) 267-5743 james.skeen@dailynews.com 160Want local news?Sign up for the Localist and stay informed Something went wrong. Please try again.subscribeCongratulations! You’re all set! AD Quality Auto 360p 720p 1080p Top articles1/5READ MOREBlues bury Kings early with four first-period goals NASA prefers to land the shuttles in Florida because it saves about $1 million in costs for ferrying an orbiter cross-country, plus it reduces the amount of handling of the spacecraft. However, about one out of every five missions ends at Edwards. The award recognizes Dryden’s work that dates back to the 1960s. The 1960s work included the Lunar Landing Research Vehicle, which supported the Apollo moon missions, and the X-15 rocket planes that tested a number of space-related technologies, including the first use of a full-pressure suit for space flight, the first use of a reaction control system for maneuvering in space, and the development of thermal protection for hypersonic re-entry. The award also recognizes a number of efforts that supported the space shuttle, including the lifting body craft that gave NASA confidence to land the shuttles unpowered; working testing flight control systems used by the orbiter; the approach and landing tests of the space shuttle prototype Enterprise; and tests on thermal protection systems. “NASA Dryden Flight Research Center will continue to contribute to the space program by serving as a potential landing site for the Crew Exploration Vehicle,” CSA said in its tribute to Dryden. “The infrastructure at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center is likely to play a key role in carrying out the bold objectives set by the vision for space exploration.” last_img read more

PURE WHITE SEAL SPOTTED ‘CHILLING’ ON THE ROCKS

first_imgSnowball the seal catching a few rays with his mate in Dungloe Bay yesterday.Local Burtonport fisherman Danny Breslin captured this snap of two seals ‘chilling’ on the rocks in Dungloe Bay, with one of the seals being completely white.Danny who has fished in the area for years, said he regularly spots seals during his fishing trips, but said he’d never seen a white seal before.Danny told Donegal Daily, “I’d see seals quite a bit around the bay, so I was surprised when I seen a completely white one. “He seemed happy enough to pose for the snap, and in the picture it looks like he’s trying to wave to me.Fisherman Danny also revealed he’s now affectionately nicknamed the seal ‘Snowball’.“I’ve decided to call him snowball, and I hope I see him again when I’m out fishing next.“On the day I took the picture it was really warm, so I’m sure Snowball was just up on the rocks trying to catch a few rays and get a nice tan. 🙂   PURE WHITE SEAL SPOTTED ‘CHILLING’ ON THE ROCKS was last modified: July 18th, 2014 by Mark ForkerShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window) Tags:burtonportDanny BreslinFeaturesfishermannewsSealSnowballWhitelast_img read more

Titan: Planetary Scientists Invent Imaginary Histories

first_imgGetting from then to now is more poetic license than demonstrable fact.Saturn’s large moon Titan has been scrutinized at multiple wavelengths by the Cassini spacecraft since it arrived in 2004: visual, infrared, ultraviolet, radio. About half of its surface has been mapped by radar (SEN). This is the Titan of 2015, but what did it used to be? For that, models are created by planetary scientists. But those models rely on assumptions that, in themselves, are philosophical, not empirical.Imagination is a spherical shell of possibilities surrounding observable reality. If one approaches the data precommitted to scenarios from one region of that shell, then it’s possible to draw lines from the unobservable reality to the observable reality, given the freedom to tweak the initial conditions in the scenario to provide a historical path consistent with known physical processes and beliefs about the time available. The problem is that there is an infinite number of imaginary scenarios that can satisfy those constraints. Should scientists be satisfied with the publication of one plausible scenario out of infinity? A new paper in Icarus by six planetologists primarily from France gives an opportunity to watch the thinking process of secular planetary scientists working within a paradigm.The title itself reveals the locus of their starting point in unobservable reality: “Evolution of Titan’s atmosphere during the Late Heavy Bombardment.” Their chosen scenario will assume, to the exclusion of others in the shell of imaginary possibilities, (1) evolution (not biological evolution, but the emergence of properties over time, such as an atmosphere), and (2) a Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB), a hypothetical event thought to have occurred approximately 4.1 to 3.8 billion years (Ga) ago. But what if Titan is not that old? What if the LHB never happened? (see 10/08/14, 4/26/12, 9/16/10).  Such questions are off the radar of these scientists. They think they have done their scientific work to imagine a scenario that draws a line from their chosen point in unobservable reality to the Titan of 2015. Watch their thinking process in the abstract, noticing how much is completely imaginary within their paradigm:The mass and composition of Titan’s massive atmosphere, which is dominated by N2 and CH4 at present, have probably varied all along its history owing to a combination of exogenous and endogenous processes. In the present study, we investigate its fate during the Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB) by modeling the competitive loss and supply of volatiles by cometary impacts and their consequences on the atmospheric balance. For surface albedos ranging between 0.1 and 0.7, we examine the emergence of an atmosphere during the LHB as well as the evolution of a primitive atmosphere with various masses and compositions prior to this event, accounting for impact-induced crustal NH3–N2 conversion and subsequent outgassing as well as impact-induced atmospheric erosion. By considering an impactor population characteristic of the LHB, we show that the generation of a N2-rich atmosphere with a mass equivalent to the present-day one requires ammonia mass fraction of 2–5%, depending on surface albedos, in an icy layer of at least 50 km below the surface, implying an undifferentiated interior at the time of LHB. Except for high surface albedos (AS⩾0.7AS⩾0.7) where most of the released N2 remain frozen at the surface, our calculations indicate that the high-velocity impacts led to a strong atmospheric erosion. For a differentiated Titan with a thin ammonia-enriched crust (⩽5 km) and AS<0.6AS<0.6, any atmosphere preexisting before the LHB should be more than 5 times more massive than at present, in order to sustain an atmosphere equivalent to the present-day one. This implies that either a massive atmosphere was formed on Titan during its accretion or that the nitrogen-rich atmosphere was generated after the LHB.How much of this paragraph constitutes knowledge (observable reality), and how much is imagination? Here are the factors that are not observable: (1) Titan’s history, (2) the LHB, (3) cometary impacts on Titan, (4) the quantity and nature of volatiles supplied by comets, (5) the emergence of an atmosphere, (6) the evolution of a primitive atmosphere, (7) the composition of prior atmospheres, (8) impact-induced crustal conversion from ammonia to nitrogen, (9) outgassing, (10) impact-induced atmospheric erosion, (11) an impactor population that fits the LHB hypothesis, (12) past ammonia mass fractions, (13) thickness of a proposed icy layer, (13) the nature of Titan’s interior, (14) the velocity of impactors, (15) the mass of a preexisting atmosphere, (16) the accretion of Titan.Some of these factors can be modeled. Models, however, are simulations of reality, not reality itself. They are designed to fit the assumptions of the consensus paradigm (e.g., that Titan is 4.5 billion years old and went through the LHB). Some  of the factors are tethered to observable reality (e.g., Titan’s current atmospheric composition; Titan’s surface properties observed by Cassini and the Huygens Probe). But there are enough free variables in the paradigm to imagine numerous alternative scenarios. These scientists centered on only two: the atmosphere’s evolution with and without an undifferentiated interior, given billions of years and an LHB.What this implies is that other teams of scientists could publish other scenarios in the same journal, even within the current consensus paradigm. If the LHB were to be loosened as an assumption, the imaginary scenarios would increase. And if the paradigm were relaxed, alternative scenarios would skyrocket. How, then, can the public gain any confidence that this paper in Icarus constitutes knowledge?Karl Popper famously proposed that the only way to advance scientific knowledge is through falsification. Scenarios such as this one could be falsified by identifying (a) evolutionary pathways that are simply too implausible given the laws of physics and chemistry, or (b) aspects of the model that contradict observations, or (c) aspects of the model that are self-contradictory. The problem is that the number of possible scenarios vastly outnumbers the scientists available to test and falsify them. And given all the free variables, proponents can always make minor tweaks to overcome falsifications.Titan is what it is, and was what it was. We have observational access to its present, but not its past. Are planetary scientists progressing toward the truth about Titan’s past, or engaging in a random walk through infinite possibility space? Unless scientists can demonstrate to the public that their scenarios improve on empty speculations, papers like this amount to little more than jargon-rich confabulations within their chosen belief system.Unobservable reality: how’s that for an oxymoron? Often, though, working with unobservable reality is legitimate in science. We know the sun has an interior, even though we cannot see it. Astrophysicists can model the core of the sun, even down to writing precise equations about the products of nuclear fusion. Then they can compare their model of the interior with the products emitted from the surface. The solar “neutrino deficit” was a huge problem for years, till new models accounted for it by proposing that neutrinos could change flavors en route to detectors on the Earth. The backside of the moon was an unobservable reality for thousands of years until the first orbiters took pictures of it.  It wasn’t unreasonable to assume that the moon had a backside, was it? There are numerous examples of scientists assuming unobservable realities, or gaining knowledge about them by indirect means. These examples, however, mostly involve present-day phenomena.Unobservable history is a different class. Unless its behavior is demonstrably cyclical, like the path of a comet, an object’s history is not amenable to scientific modeling. There can only be conjecture based on assumptions about initial conditions: e.g., If Titan were 4.5 billion years old, and if there was an LHB, and if its interior never differentiated, then its atmosphere might evolve along such-and-such a trajectory. Like we have shown, though, possible scenarios increase with the variables. Philosophers can prove that an infinite number of models exist that can fit the chosen assumptions and constraints. This is known as “underdetermination of theory by data.” It figured large in the writings of Duhem, Quine, Laudan and other philosophers of science (see Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy). Most practicing scientists have never been trained in such matters of logic. As Thomas Kuhn described, they are perfectly comfortable working within the paradigm of their peers, without even being aware they are inside a paradigm.This entry illustrates the futility of shooting down individual models. There are too many of them. Skeptics of the current paradigm need to undermine the paradigm, not just the models it generates. When pointing out the flaws in a given model, the critic needs to prove that this undermines the whole class of models originating from that paradigm’s assumptions. One way to do that is to point out upper limits on the time available: e.g., given the observed rate of depletion of Titan’s atmosphere, it cannot be older than 100 million years. This rules out every scenario that depends on billions of years. Members of the paradigm can always posit that comets replenished the atmosphere from time to time.  The critic’s job is to point out that anyone can invent ad hoc rescue devices to save a pet theory, but that is contrary to the ideals of science. Scientific claims need strong tethers to observable reality.Exercise: Our goal at CEH is not to teach you what to think but how to think. Given the principles in this entry, analyze scientists’ behaviors and thoughts about unobservable history in these articles:Jupiter Moon Europa’s Dark Lines May Be Salt from Underground Sea (Space.com)What our solar system looked like as a ‘toddler’ (Science Daily)Planet formation relied on sweeping up of small glassy beads, new model suggests (PhysOrg)Growth of asteroids, planetary embryos, and Kuiper belt objects by chondrule accretion (Science Magazine)A conversation with astronomer Dimitri Mawet (PhysOrg) – the Caltech astronomer jumps seamlessly from observable reality to an unobservable prehistory (Visited 15 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0last_img read more